The Physical Signs of Sexual Abuse - Royal College of Paediatrics


THE ULTIMATE TRAVESTY OF JUSTICE - Is being convicted for raping a teenager, when the girl was still a virgin (intact). Dr Liebenberg was the expert witness who aided Sussex Police to obtain the conviction of an activist that Wealden District Council desperately wanted to silence. In effect, she lied to a Jury, by not telling them that guidance just about to be released, confirmed that certain marks are naturally occurring. Our Melanie from Eastbourne said words to the effect that she: could think of no other explanation (meaning rape by penetration) than that the man was accused of. It gets worse, when Liebenberg realized on examination that the girl's hymen was tightly closed (a virgin), she then declined to measure from the hymen to the vaginal wall, because she knew that part of the test would reveal conclusively that the girl was intact - or another words, that she had lied about being penetrated. But if the doctor revealed that, the accused could not be charged - and that was the agenda - to take him out of society because he was a political activist. Not many people know that once charged of a sexual offence in the UK, a man is presumed to be guilty - not innocent - a violation of Article 6. The state does not have to prove guilt as with any other criminal charge. Hence any person can make an unsupported allegation and in the absence of evidence to the contrary (which of course a clever pretender can fabricate) the accused will be condemned in what is a statute supported witch hunt.



Paedophillia is a psychiatric disorder in which an adult or older adolescent experiences a primary or exclusive sexual attraction to prepubescent children.


Although girls typically begin the process of puberty at age 10 or 11, and boys at age 11 or 12, criteria for pedophilia extend the cut-off point for prepubescence to age 13. A person who is diagnosed with pedophilia must be at least 16 years old, and at least five years older than the prepubescent child, for the attraction to be diagnosed as pedophilia.


Pedophilia is termed pedophilic disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), and the manual defines it as a paraphilia involving intense and recurrent sexual urges towards and fantasies about prepubescent children that have either been acted upon or which cause the person with the attraction distress or interpersonal difficulty. The International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) defines it as a sexual preference for children of prepubertal or early pubertal age.


In popular usage, the word pedophilia is often applied to any sexual interest in children or the act of child sexual abuse. This use conflates the sexual attraction to prepubescent children with the act of child sexual abuse, and fails to distinguish between attraction to prepubescent and pubescent or post-pubescent minors. Researchers recommend that these imprecise uses be avoided, because although people who commit child sexual abuse are sometimes pedophiles, child sexual abuse offenders are not pedophiles unless they have a primary or exclusive sexual interest in prepubescent children, and some pedophiles do not molest children.


Pedophilia was first formally recognized and named in the late 19th century. A significant amount of research in the area has taken place since the 1980s. Although mostly documented in men, there are also women who exhibit the disorder, and researchers assume available estimates under-represent the true number of female pedophiles. No cure for pedophilia has been developed, but there are therapies that can reduce the incidence of a person committing child sexual abuse.


The exact causes of pedophilia have not been conclusively established. Some studies of pedophilia in child sex offenders have correlated it with various neurological abnormalities and psychological pathologies. In the United States, following Kansas v. Hendricks, sex offenders who are diagnosed with certain mental disorders, particularly pedophilia, can be subject to indefinite civil commitment as part of their eugenics programmes, that are now seriously curtailed, but influenced Adolf Hitler and Heinrich Himmler to begin what they saw as cleansing Germany of humans who they ranked undesirable, in violation of all humane decency and morals.


In Britain, under British laws enacted in 2003 that were masterminded by Lord David Blunkett, working under the former Prime Minister, Tony Blair




SCREEN MEMORIES - The poor girl may have been an unwilling accomplice, in that she suffered from an attention seeking disorder and was prone to memory suggestion; commonly known as Screen Memories.  With the right prompting (coaching) this girl might actually begin to believe that she was raped, based on isolated memory traces, tiny islands of memory that are real. It is not easy for the subject to determine whether such memories are really recollections of actual events or are 'memories' of (for example) a family legend, kept alive and often embellished and distorted by parents or other older family members, and told to a child at a later age. Her school friends might have helped her to construct what she thought was a real memory as she struggled to make sense of earlier childhood memories. For sure the evidence tells us that she was not penetrated as she was claiming. Such spontaneous early memories are termed 'screen memories,' i.e. condensations of a series of memories which have been stored like a series of superimposed photographs." (Max Schur, Freud Living and Dying, p. 117). In his paper on screen memories of 1899, Freud argued that the visual images we bring to mind when recollecting early childhood experience are not pictures of reality: they are distortions or screens that allow us to avoid facing what really happened.


PSYCHOANALYSIS - Is a set of psychological and psychotherapeutic theories and techniques, created by Austrian physician Sigmund Freud and stemming partly from the clinical work of Josef Breuer and others. Over time, psychoanalysis has been revised and developed in different directions. Some of Freud's colleagues and students, such as Alfred Adler and Carl Jung, went on to develop their own ideas independently using the term 'psychoanalysis.'The Neo-Freudians included Erich Fromm, Karen Horney, and Harry Stack Sullivan. The basic tenets of psychoanalysis include:

1. a person's development is determined by often forgotten events in early childhood rather than by inherited traits alone.
2. human attitude, mannerism, experience, and thought is largely influenced by irrational drives that are rooted in the unconscious
3. it is necessary to bypass psychological resistance in the form of defense mechanisms when bringing drives into awareness
4. conflicts between the conscious and the unconscious, or with repressed material can materialize in the form of mental or emotional disturbances, for example: neurosis, neurotic traits, anxiety, depression etc.
5. liberating the elements of the unconscious is achieved through bringing this material into the conscious mind (via e.g. skilled guidance, i.e. therapeutic intervention).




FRAUD AND IMMUNITY - The claimant's mother was a serial fraudster. She'd had a previous relationship that failed leading to a property struggle. This woman owned a property other than where she was living and failed to declare that fact when claiming benefits. She omitted to declare a capital sum that subsequently came from the sale of a second home. Because with that sum of money she could not claim housing benefit or work tax credits. She was of course claiming both. How then did the police not prosecute her, but instead prosecuted the man when he was collecting evidence of these frauds for an appeal? The only answer we can think of was that she was granted immunity from prosecution in return for her false testimony. She even blurted out something about this when being cross examined. Indicating that she'd been coerced into giving evidence, against her will. It could be then that the police knew about her fraudulent ways and used this knowledge to force her to take the witness stand.


The problem with her testimony, was that she claimed in open court that the man had not lived with her, when he had in fact lived with her for over two years, also contributing money to the running of her house in Hailsham. The neighbours (if they had been asked, including a solicitor and a police man) could have confirmed that the target stayed at her house every night for these two years - hence, the definition living together. The woman claimed that there had been no financial input from the man, and that is demonstrably a lie because of payment stubs where he was paying her credit card bills on a monthly basis. But these facts did not sit well with her claiming housing benefit or working tax credits. There were other frauds that reveal a pattern of abusing state grants, and not declaring income - that it would have been nigh on impossible for the investigating officers not to discover.


The defending barrister was given this evidence in a comprehensive bundle but failed to introduce anything that would show that the mother of the claimant was a liar, because that factor would have cast doubts as to the claimant's motives for making the allegation.




Studies of pedophilia in child sex offenders often report that it co-occurs with other psychopathologies, such as low self-esteem, depression, anxiety, and personality problems. It is not clear whether these are features of the disorder itself, artifacts of sampling bias, or consequences of being identified as a sex offender.


One review of the literature concluded that research on personality correlates and psychopathology in pedophiles is rarely methodologically correct, in part owing to confusion between pedophiles and child sex offenders, as well as the difficulty of obtaining a representative, community sample of pedophiles. Seto (2004) points out that pedophiles who are available from a clinical setting are likely there because of distress over their sexual preference or pressure from others. This increases the likelihood that they will show psychological problems. Similarly, pedophiles recruited from a correctional setting have been convicted of a crime, making it more likely that they will show anti-social characteristics.

Impaired self-concept and interpersonal functioning were reported in a sample of child sex offenders who met the diagnostic criteria for pedophilia by Cohen et al. (2002), which the authors suggested could contribute to motivation for pedophilic acts. The pedophilic offenders in the study had elevated psychopathy and cognitive distortions compared to healthy community controls. This was interpreted as underlying their failure to inhibit their criminal behavior. Studies in 2009 and 2012 found that non-pedophilic child molesters exhibited psychopathy, but pedophiles did not.

Wilson and Cox (1983) studied the characteristics of a group of pedophile club members. The most marked differences between pedophiles and controls were on the introversion scale, with pedophiles showing elevated shyness, sensitivity and depression. The pedophiles scored higher on neuroticism and psychoticism, but not enough to be considered pathological as a group. The authors caution that "there is a difficulty in untangling cause and effect. We cannot tell whether paedophiles gravitate towards children because, being highly introverted, they find the company of children less threatening than that of adults, or whether the social withdrawal implied by their introversion is a result of the isolation engendered by their preference i.e., awareness of the social [dis]approbation and hostility that it evokes" (p. 324). In a non-clinical survey, 46% of pedophiles reported that they had seriously considered suicide for reasons related to their sexual interest, 32% planned to carry it out, and 13% had already attempted it.

A review of qualitative research studies published between 1982 and 2001 concluded that child sexual abusers use cognitive distortions to meet personal needs, justifying abuse by making excuses, redefining their actions as love and mutuality, and exploiting the power imbalance inherent in all adult–child relationships. Other cognitive distortions include the idea of "children as sexual beings", uncontrollability of sexual behavior, and "sexual entitlement-bias"


Consumption of child pornography is a more reliable indicator of pedophilia than molesting a child, although some non-pedophiles also view child pornography. Child pornography may be used for a variety of purposes, ranging from private sexual gratification or trading with other collectors, to preparing children for sexual abuse as part of the child grooming process.

Pedophilic viewers of child pornography are often obsessive about collecting, organizing, categorizing, and labeling their child pornography collection according to age, gender, sex act and fantasy. According to FBI agent Ken Lanning, "collecting" pornography does not mean that they merely view pornography, but that they save it, and "it comes to define, fuel, and validate their most cherished sexual fantasies". Lanning states that the collection is the single best indicator of what the offender wants to do, but not necessarily of what has or will be done. Researchers Taylor and Quayle reported that pedophilic collectors of child pornography are often involved in anonymous internet communities dedicated to extending their collections.


Although what causes pedophilia is not yet known, researchers began reporting a series of findings linking pedophilia with brain structure and function, beginning in 2002. Testing individuals from a variety of referral sources inside and outside the criminal justice system as well as controls, these studies found associations between pedophilia and lower IQs, poorer scores on memory tests, greater rates of non-right-handedness, greater rates of school grade failure over and above the IQ differences, lesser physical height, greater probability of having suffered childhood head injuries resulting in unconsciousness, and several differences in MRI-detected brain structures.

Such studies suggest that there are one or more neurological characteristics present at birth that cause or increase the likelihood of being pedophilic. Some studies have found that pedophiles are less cognitively impaired than non-pedophilic child molesters. A 2011 study reported that pedophilic child molesters had deficits in response inhibition, but no deficits in memory or cognitive flexibility. Evidence of familial transmittability "suggests, but does not prove that genetic factors are responsible" for the development of pedophilia. A 2015 study indicated that pedophilic offenders have a normal IQ.

Another study, using structural MRI, indicated that male pedophiles have a lower volume of white matter than a control group. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has indicated that child molesters diagnosed with pedophilia have reduced activation of the hypothalamus as compared with non-pedophilic persons when viewing sexually arousing pictures of adults. A 2008 functional neuroimaging study notes that central processing of sexual stimuli in heterosexual "paedophile forensic inpatients" may be altered by a disturbance in the prefrontal networks, which "may be associated with stimulus-controlled behaviours, such as sexual compulsive behaviours". The findings may also suggest "a dysfunction at the cognitive stage of sexual arousal processing".

Blanchard, Cantor, and Robichaud (2006) reviewed the research that attempted to identify hormonal aspects of pedophiles. They concluded that there is some evidence that pedophilic men have less testosterone than controls, but that the research is of poor quality and that it is difficult to draw any firm conclusion from it.

While not causes of pedophilia themselves, childhood abuse by adults or comorbid psychiatric illnesses—such as personality disorders and substance abuse—are risk factors for acting on pedophilic urges. Blanchard, Cantor, and Robichaud addressed comorbid psychiatric illnesses that, "The theoretical implications are not so clear. Do particular genes or noxious factors in the prenatal environment predispose a male to develop both affective disorders and pedophilia, or do the frustration, danger, and isolation engendered by unacceptable sexual desires—or their occasional furtive satisfaction—lead to anxiety and despair?" They indicated that, because they previously found mothers of pedophiles to be more likely to have undergone psychiatric treatment, the genetic possibility is more likely.

A study analyzing the sexual fantasies of 200 heterosexual men by using the Wilson Sex Fantasy Questionnaire exam determined that males with a pronounced degree of paraphilic interest (including pedophilia) had a greater number of older brothers, a high 2D:4D digit ratio (which would indicate low prenatal androgen exposure), and an elevated probability of being left-handed, suggesting that disturbed hemispheric brain lateralization may play a role in deviant attractions.


The term pedophile is commonly used by the public to describe all child sexual abuse offenders. This usage is considered problematic by researchers, because many child molesters do not have a strong sexual interest in prepubescent children, and are consequently not pedophiles. There are motives for child sexual abuse that are unrelated to pedophilia, such as stress, marital problems, the unavailability of an adult partner, general anti-social tendencies, high sex drive or alcohol use. As child sexual abuse is not automatically an indicator that its perpetrator is a pedophile, offenders can be separated into two types: pedophilic and non-pedophilic (or preferential and situational). Estimates for the rate of pedophilia in detected child molesters generally range between 25% and 50%. A 2006 study found that 35% of its sample of child molesters were pedophilic. Pedophilia appears to be less common in incest offenders, especially fathers and step-fathers. According to a U.S. study on 2429 adult male sex offenders who were categorized as "pedophiles", only 7% identified themselves as exclusive; indicating that many or most child sexual abusers may fall into the non-exclusive category.

Some pedophiles do not molest children. Little is known about this population because most studies of pedophilia use criminal or clinical samples, which may not be representative of pedophiles in general. Researcher Michael Seto suggests that pedophiles who commit child sexual abuse do so because of other anti-social traits in addition to their sexual attraction. He states that pedophiles who are "reflective, sensitive to the feelings of others, averse to risk, abstain from alcohol or drug use, and endorse attitudes and beliefs supportive of norms and the laws" may be unlikely to abuse children. A 2015 study indicates that pedophiles who molested children are neurologically distinct from non-offending pedophiles. The pedophilic molesters had neurological deficits suggestive of disruptions in inhibitory regions of the brain, while non-offending pedophiles had no such deficits.

According to Abel, Mittleman, and Becker (1985) and Ward et al. (1995), there are generally large distinctions between the characteristics of pedophilic and non-pedophilic molesters. They state that non-pedophilic offenders tend to offend at times of stress; have a later onset of offending; and have fewer, often familial, victims, while pedophilic offenders often start offending at an early age; often have a larger number of victims who are frequently extrafamilial; are more inwardly driven to offend; and have values or beliefs that strongly support an offense lifestyle. One study found that pedophilic molesters had a median of 1.3 victims for those with girl victims and 4.4 for those with boy victims. Child molesters, pedophilic or not, employ a variety of methods to gain sexual access to children. Some groom their victims into compliance with attention and gifts, while others use threats, alcohol or drugs, or physical force.


Pedophilia is not a legal term, and having a sexual attraction to children is not illegal. In law enforcement circles, the term pedophile is sometimes used informally to refer to any person who commits one or more sexually-based crimes that relate to legally underage victims. These crimes may include child sexual abuse, statutory rape, offenses involving child pornography, child grooming, stalking, and indecent exposure. One unit of the United Kingdom's Child Abuse Investigation Command is known as the "Paedophile Unit" and specializes in online investigations and enforcement work. Some forensic science texts, such as Holmes (2008), use the term to refer to offenders who target child victims, even when such children are not the primary sexual interest of the offender. FBI agent Kenneth Lanning, however, makes a point of distinguishing between pedophiles and child molesters.


Pedophilia is one of the most stigmatized mental disorders. One study reported high levels of anger, fear and social rejection towards pedophiles who have not committed a crime. The authors suggested such attitudes could negatively impact child sexual abuse prevention by reducing pedophiles' mental stability and discouraging them from seeking help. According to sociologists Melanie-Angela Neuilly and Kristen Zgoba, social concern over pedophilia intensified greatly in the 1990s, coinciding with several sensational sex crimes (but a general decline in child sexual abuse rates). They found that the word pedophile appeared only rarely in The New York Times and Le Monde before 1996, with zero mentions in 1991.

Social attitudes towards child sexual abuse are extremely negative, with some surveys ranking it as morally worse than murder. Early research showed that there was a great deal of misunderstanding and unrealistic perceptions in the general public about child sexual abuse and pedophiles. However, a 2004 study concluded that the public was well-informed on some aspects of these subjects.

The problem with scaremongering is that ordinary caring parents (mothers and fathers) might not show affection in public for fear of being thought of as a paedophile.

Indeed, the ease with which a child might obtain a conviction against a parent who they dislike or have fallen out with is scary.

No proof at all is required on the part of the child, just their say so.

The fact that schools teach the subject during sex education means that in the case of false allegations that these children are being taught how to couch an accusation so that it will be believable.

Social services workers often coach adolescent witnesses to steer their story until they get a more believable version sorted out ready to be video recorded.

This will include using phrases such as "now tell the truth ?????", when in reality the social workers and other family members, or even school friends are telling them what they want to hear as being the truth.

Claimants are frequently equipped with key words and phrases that are to be used during oral questioning in a Court. These might include: "It's is the truth."

A trial Judge no longer has to warn a Jury about the danger of convicting a person just on the say so of a claimant, without any supporting evidence.


In the case of the rape of a male or female, there will always be physical signs of penetration such as scars from lacerations and bruising. In the case of a female under 13 it may be that the hymen is intact, in which case the girl has not been penetrated. In the case of a female under 16 it is liklely that she will have had illegal under age consensual sex with another under age partner, meaning that it would be impossible to attribute non-consensual sex with consensual sex.

One particularly disturbing statistic is the number of convictions that have been obtained with false science. This applies particularly to female where all girls have marks around the hymen that are naturally occuring. In many cases doctors giving evidence have made great play on these telling members of a Jury that they cannot think of any way to explaing these marks other than penetration. Clearly that is a lie and any expert witness using such phrases is out to assist the police to gain a conviction regardless of the physical evidence, that may be telling it otherwise.

In one case that we know of a man was convicted using this exact technique, where the so-called expert knew about the correct procedure for measuring the distance between hymen and vaginal wall, but realising that if she did so that her evidence would confirm no penetration as had been claimed, this expert witness simply failed to use a colposcope to do the measuring - so ensuring that a conviction would be obtained.


In a fair society a full defence would entail calling an independent expert where the correct procedure had not been used, but in this case the solicitors and barrister did not want to use up their limited fee to obtain an expert rebuttal that a Jury could rely on.

Instead of that, the trial Judge simply instructed the Jury to make of it what they might. Or, in other words, he instructed them to convict the defendant.




The subject of this wrongful conviction was a normal male who had called off an engagement to the claimant's mother and left the family after the woman had become abusive and violent at times.


This was because he worked away from home for long hours. The mother's attempts to keep her victim constrained included getting her father, a mason, to use his influence with the local council to bankrupt him.


When this backfired, the mother and daughter warned the male that if he left their family they would get him. Unfortunately for this man he did not know what they meant by that because he had no knowledge of sexual offences or the laws pertaining. For this reason and despite their warnings, he did leave the family unit, doing his best to be supportive at a distance.


He mixed well with females under and over the age of 16, usually working with older women in business, but typically with men, and regularly attended pubs and night clubs, so was not socially disadvantaged or shy. In fact he was an outgoing type and routinely defended disadvantaged citizens who the local council were enforcing against using planning law, and where he won a number of key case that did stand him if good odor with the council or the local police force, where there were allegations of corruption and the police had failed to mount an investigation.


It was convenient to say the least for both the council and the police that they might groom the family concerned to help them fabricate a story to complete their revenge, and so take this political opponent, a planning and equal rights activist out of the running.


The police and CPS elicited the indulgence of a Judge who they knew would be sympathetic to their cause. In this case that Judge also turned out not to have a sufficient grasp of the facts being presented during the trial, to be able to properly instruct the Jury.


On another key piece or evidence, a work diary, the Judge instructed the Jury that this was the defendant's own diary (and so could have been written to show no opportunity) but in fact it was the mother's work diary and she had hidden it from the investigating officer in her loft so that it could not be discovered by accident.


For this reason neither the Jury or the Court noticed that the dates did not support the evidence of the claimant, but supported the evidence of the defendant as to opportunity.


The defendant's legal team called no witnesses on his behalf, though there were 17 character references that were available to show that he mixed well and had helped to bring up two nieces and two female cousins without any issues. In cases like this it is important for the Court to build up a picture of the defendant as to potential sexual issues and his prior conduct in that regard. It was a major failing on the part of his legal team not to call witnesses. Those that attended the solicitor's offices offering testimony were told that their evidence would not assist the Court.



Vagina, clitoris, labia and hymen


THE ULTIMATE RAPE - This is a picture of a vagina where the hymen is open. This woman could not be described as a virgin. After penetration, a girl's hymen opens. Before penetration, a girl's hymen is tightly closed. You can measure this with a colposcope. Melanie Liebenberg saw that the claimant's hymen with tightly closed. She then tried to tease the hymen open to effect the look of penetration, but even with labial traction, the girls hymen remained tightly closed. You would need to be completely incompetent not to the put any girl claiming rape, into the correct position to measure from the vaginal wall to the hymen. Melanie Leibenberg was not incompetent, she was deliberately concealing the facts from the Court/Jury. She got away with it, because the Judge, Cedric Joseph was helping the prosecution wherever he could, to point of committing perjury, in wrongfully instructing the Jury that a diary with important dates in it, belonged to the accused, when in fact, it belonged to the claimant's mother. This woman had hidden her work diary in her loft to prevent Sussex Police finding it. She could not take the chance that an honest officer would not realize that the dates in this diary did not corroborate her daughter's story, but rather confirmed the defendant's assertions that he had no had the opportunities for contact in private, that the girl was claiming.




In reality, the story that was presented to the Court in Worthing, Sussex, in February of 2008 had been changed several times before the girl had been recorded - where the law says a claimant must be interviewed immediately to avoid story changes. The CPS gave this girl and her family two weeks to concoct a story. Even in the recording, the girl had to be reminded to "tell the truth." She did not know what the truth was. It had of course been drummed into her that she had been penetrated at the defendant's home when they were alone together. Why? Because this was plausible for a jury.


When her mother realized that her work diary did not show this, she hid it in her loft. The police did not search her loft. The existence of the diary only came to light during the trial, when she was caught out lying several times and thought she'd obliterated the prosecution case, so, suddenly introduced her diary. The defence were not given the time to forensically examine the diary and only blurred monochrome copies of some pages were provided to the defence. Cedric Joseph did not stop the trial to adjourn to give the defence time to check dated and times - and then, to cloud any possibility of a Juror checking the dates against a calendar for themselves, told them that it was the defendant's diary. The jury could not possibly have had time to check the dates in the diary, because they did not deliberate for long enough, but returned a verdict in very short order. The ruse by Cedric Joseph and the CPS as partners in what amounts to organised crime had worked.





Under the Sexual Offences Act 2003, which came into force on 1st May 2004 the as a result of David Blunkett. Rape in England and Wales was redefined from non-consensual vaginal or anal intercourse, and is now defined as non-consensual penis penetration of the vagina, anus or mouth of another person. The changes also made rape punishable with a maximum sentence of life imprisonment.


ROLE REVERSAL - But more importantly, and a violation of Article 6, the burden of proof shifted from the Prosecution to a Defendant to prove his or her innocence.


Article 6 requires that an accused is to be deemed Innocent Until Proven Guilty. Under this peculiarly English bastardization of justice, any person accused of a sexual crime is deemed to be Guilty - and has to prove their Innocence.


THE HOLY GRAIL - Although a woman who forces a man to have sex cannot be prosecuted for rape under English law, if she helps a man commit a rape she can be prosecuted for the crime. A woman can also be prosecuted for causing a man to engage in sexual activity without his consent, a crime which also carries a maximum life sentence if it involves penetration of the mouth, anus or vagina.


The statute also includes a new sexual crime, called "assault by penetration", which also has the same punishment as rape, and is committed when someone sexually penetrates the anus or vagina with a part of his or her body, or with an object, without that person's consent.


Also see: rape sex sodomy  buggery