Adopted and proclaimed by General Assembly resolution 217 A (III) of 10 December 1948



Article 13.

    (1) Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each state.


    (2) Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country.

Article 14.

    (1) Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution.


    (2) This right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions genuinely arising from non-political crimes or from acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.

Article 15.

    (1) Everyone has the right to a nationality.


    (2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality.

Article 16.

    (1) Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution.


    (2) Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses.


    (3) The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State.

Article 17.

    (1) Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with others.


    (2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property.

Article 18.

    Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance.

Article 19.

    Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.

Article 20.

    (1) Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association.


    (2) No one may be compelled to belong to an association.

Article 21.

    (1) Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country, directly or through freely chosen representatives.


    (2) Everyone has the right of equal access to public service in his country.


    (3) The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government; this will shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures.

Article 22.

    Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.

Article 23.

    (1) Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment.


    (2) Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work.


    (3) Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection.


    (4) Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests.

Article 24.

    Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay.

Article 25.

    (1) Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control.


    (2) Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social protection.

Article 26.

    (1) Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit.


    (2) Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace.


    (3) Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children.

Article 27.

    (1) Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits.


    (2) Everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which he is the author.

Article 28.

Article 29.

    (1) Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full development of his personality is possible.


    (2) In the exercise of his rights and freedoms, everyone shall be subject only to such limitations as are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the just requirements of morality, public order and the general welfare in a democratic society.


    (3) These rights and freedoms may in no case be exercised contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.

Article 30.

    Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set forth herein.





    Article 1
    Article 2
    Article 3
    Article 4
    Article 5

    Article 6
    Article 7
    Article 8
    Article 9
    Article 10

    Article 11
    Article 12
    Article 13
    Article 14
    Article 15

    Article 16
    Article 17
    Article 18
    Article 19
    Article 20

    Article 21
    Article 22
    Article 23
    Article 24
    Article 25

    Article 26
    Article 27
    Article 28
    Article 29
    Article 30





    Article 1
    Article 2
    Article 3

    Article 4
    Article 5
    Article 6

    Article 7
    Article 8
    Article 9

    Article 10

    Article 11
    Article 12

    Article 13
    Article 14
    Article 15

    Article 16
    Article 17
    Article 18




    Universal Declaration of Human Rights illustrated book cover



    LEAD CASE: DISCRIMINATION & EFFECTIVE REMEDY - In the case of Nelson Kruschandl v Sussex Police and Wealden District Council, The British Governments of the United Kingdom has/have been in violation of several of the above articles since 1982, with another milestone passed in 1987 and a further major obstacle to personal development and potential in 2008 with the employment of the Sexual Offences Act 2003. Since that time Articles 1 and 8 of the UN Universal Declaration have been violated in that in Britain Article 13 of the European Convention has been deliberately omitted from the Human Rights Act 1998 - for the express purpose of undermining, holding back and preventing the personal development potential of certain citizens who challenge the present system whereby the ordinary man is a slave to financial institutions, the landed gentry, the councils, courts and reviewers who serve them in a modern Britain with lesser overtly exploitive opportunities than their Empire days.


    In furtherance of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth Windsor's Government' objectives, Legal Aid funding to be able to mount any kind of fully argued trial defence or appeal against wrongful conviction, has been trimmed to the bone - such as to have the appearance of a functional justice system - but that in fact the British justice system is fatally flawed on several counts, not least funding shortfall, so that in particular those accused of a sexual offence are deprived of a fair hearing under Blunkett Law and that having been so convicted, an effective remedy is also denied to those poor souls wrongly accused.


    For the above reasons Britain is at the moment no better a place to reside than Nazi Germany when that country was policed by the Gestapo after World War One and before and during World War Two, leaving the British public at the mercy of a (noble cause) corrupt system, no better off than if those fighting for the fundamental freedoms during WW2 and dying for that cause had not laid down their lives, making the ultimate sacrifice in vain, on the promise of achieving a genuine democracy free of oppression, whereas the core agenda of British plutocrats remain as before the Universal Declaration allied to depriving the ordinary man of his rights most appallingly.


    NO CONSTITUTION - Constitutions organise, distribute and regulate state power. They set out the structure of the state, the major state institutions, and the principles governing their relations with each other and with the state’s citizens.


    Britain is unusual in that it has an unwritten’ constitution: unlike the great majority of countries there is no single legal document which sets out in one place the fundamental laws outlining how the state works.

    The United Kingdom does not have one specific constitutional document named as such because it would not suit those who rule the country at local level. It would not suit the police or the Courts who are riddled with secret society links, like the Masons


    Instead, the so-called constitution of the United Kingdom, or British constitution, is a confusing sum of laws and principles that make up the country's body politic. This is sometimes referred to as an "unwritten" or uncodified constitution. you might say the system in unconstitutional.


    The British system is haphazard, primarily drawing from three sources: 


    1. Statute law (laws passed by the legislature), 

    2. Common law (laws established through court judgments),

    3. Parliamentary conventions, and works of authority. 


    Unlike an entirely written constitution, this gray area of law that is constantly changing governs both the relationship between the individual and the state and the functioning of the legislature, the executive, and the judiciary - but, and for this very reason is open to and frequented by corrupt practices and abuse whereby a blind eye may be turned in specific cases - frequently giving rise to ECHR Article 14 discrimination (UN UDHR Article 7).

    Indeed, many of the Laws of England conflict with other laws of the land, with no effective remedy available under the domestic Human Rights Act 1998 via the omission of EHRC Article 13, in itself an admission that the lack of a constitution is unworkable in terms of fairness.


    It is high time that British citizens had a more reliable set of rules. What Britain needs is a proper written Constitution.



(other language versions)


The Human Rights Act 1998  -  Schedule 1 Part I - The Articles  -  Part II  First Protocol  -  Part III Sixth Protocol

Scotland Legislation |  Wales Legislation |  Northern Ireland Legislation |  HMSO