Dr Melanie Ann Liebenberg

  Consultant Paediatrician - Eastbourne District General Hospital - Expert Witness

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Dr Melanie Anne Liebenberg

 


Dr Melanie Anne Liebenberg MBChB
The Lushington Clinic
21 Lushington Road
Eastbourne, East Sussex, BN21 4LG
Tel: 01323 410441

Email:  lynne@LushingtonClinic.co.uk

Doctor Melanie Anne Liebenberg is/was a consultant pediatrician based at the Eastbourne District General Hospital, NHS Trust. She also works and is available for consultation at the Lushington Clinic.

 

CURRENT POSTS 2013

Dr Liebenberg is a Community Paediatric consultant who can/could be found working in the Scott unit at Eastbourne DGH. She deals with referrals of children with developmental difficulties, physical disabilities and behavioural concerns. She was previously a General Paediatric consultant with sub-speciality interest in Respiratory medicine (March 2000 – Feb 2003)

BACKGROUND

 

Dr Liebenberg trained at the University of Stellenbosch, South Africa where she obtained her MBChB in 1986.  DCH 1995, FCP(Paed)SA 1997 (University of Cape Town, South Africa). She was admitted to the UK Specialist register in 1999 via equivalence route. In the past she has been called by the Crown as a specialist witness.

Her professional Interests include the diagnostic evaluation of children with possible Autistic Spectrum Disorder. She is involved in a national audit programme for ASD and one of the Paediatric representatives on the ASD pathway group for East Sussex. In connection with this interest ([ADOS] Autistic Diagnostic Observation Schedule) she undertook training in January of 2012. Her speciality is
Paediatrics with a specific interest and broad experience in Developmental Paediatrics. She is married with 3 children. She enjoys swimming, sailing, running and dog walking.

MEMBERSHIPS

* BACCH (British association for community paediatrics and Child Health)
* BACD (British association for Childhood Disability)
* Fellow of Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health

Title: Dr
Forenames: Melanie Anne
Surname: Liebenberg
Gender: Female
Primary Medical Qualifications: MB ChB
Date of registration: 03/06/1991
GMC number: 3537769
Areas of Expertise:  Paediatrics
Practices:  Paediatrics
NHS Practices

Clinical Excellence Award
Local: Level 2

 

 

Note: The Lushington Clinic LLP is limited liability partnership registered in England & Wales under registration number OC308529.

 

 

EASTBOURNE DGH IN THE NEWS

 

The relatives of nine patients who were treated at Queen’s Hospital in Romford, Essex and nine who were treated at Eastbourne District General Hospital, East Sussex, have instructed lawyers to pursue their claims, according to Radio 4’s Today programme.

They allege that the treatment received at each hospital amounted to a breach of their human rights and in some cases, may have contributed to their deaths.

The claims follow the publication of a devastating report into the crisis at Mid Staffordshire, where up to 1,200 people died needlessly. An investigation has also been launched into excessive mortality rates at five other NHS trusts.

Dot Roast, 67, from Rainham, east London, said her husband Ronald had not been fed properly and that his drip had not worked after he was admitted to Queen’s Hospital in October 2011.

She said her 69-year-old husband, who had suffered several heart attacks and had advanced cancer, had to wait several hours to see a doctor and was without a drip for more than 12 hours. He died later from lung cancer in a hospice.

Her daughter, Maria Lloyd, claimed that because he was dying, medical staff had simply appeared not to care.

“It was just awful,” she said. “The nurses who were changing him left the curtains open and hadn’t covered him up properly.

“There was just no dignity. He was dying but you can’t treat people like that. At the end of the day if you go into hospital you expect to be treated with respect and dignity. I thought we had gone back to the 1800s.”

Robin Tilbury’s mother Patricia, 85, died at Eastbourne District General in November 2011. She had cancer and had been admitted with malnutrition.

Mr Tilbury said he believed she had been denied vital nutrition supplements and had not been monitored “in any way”.

Emma Jones, a human rights lawyer with solicitors Leigh Day & Co, said: “We are talking about people who have been left without hydration, who haven’t been given food, whose medication has been missed. Many care issues.

“We are talking about people who are often elderly, they are vulnerable and I can understand completely why relatives of their loved ones would believe that such poor treatment and care might have contributed to their death.

Four people have so far officially submitted claims, according to the report.

The East Sussex Healthcare Trust confirmed that it had received two claims under the Human Rights Act. The trust had 334 excessive deaths recorded for July 2010-12

 

 

Eastbourne DGH, District General Hospital entrance.

Eastbourne Hospital expensive car park charges

 

Getting yourself admitted to hospital is just as worrying these days because you may go in for something minor and not come out except in a hearse. The hospital will be sure to profit from your visit in every way - before you die. Car park charges is another  'rip-off' for debate.

 

 

 

JUNE 2015 USA - HOW EASY IS IT TO GAIN A CONVICTION BY STATING FALSEHOODS AS FACTS

 

On 3 April 1981 Kirk Odom was walking near his home in Washington DC when he was stopped by a police officer. It was just a random passing in the street. Odom had done nothing, been nowhere. He was an unexceptional 18-year-old trying to raise his infant daughter Katrice who was then less than a year old.

The officer pulled a sketch of an unidentified black man out of his pocket and invited Odom to agree that the person in the drawing looked strikingly like him. “I said, ‘No, it doesn’t look like me,’” Odom recalls. Then the officer took the teenager’s name and address, and allowed him to walk away thinking that was the end of that.

But that was not the end of that. A few days later, Odom was arrested and charged with a brutal crime. Two months previously a young woman had been attacked by a stranger who had broken into her apartment before dawn, held a gun to her head, blindfolded her and tied her up, then sodomised and raped her before making off with $400 in travellers’ checks.

The prosecution case against Odom was flimsy at best. The victim had seen her assailant only fleetingly and in the dark, and the composite drawing that had been based on her description – the one that the police officer had thought looked just like him – referred to a black male of “medium complexion” when Odom’s skin is very dark. He also had a convincing alibi, having been asleep at his mother’s house at the time of the attack.

With such shaky evidence, Odom assumed that the authorities would soon realise their mistake and the whole nightmare would go away. “I didn’t think anything was going to come of this, because I hadn’t done anything,” he says.

But when it came to trial, prosecution lawyers produced their ace card. They had a hair, they told the jury. A single strand of “negroid” hair found on the victim’s nightgown that must have come from the rapist.

Special Agent Myron T Scholberg of the Federal Bureau of Investigation stood before the jury and delivered the coup de grace. He worked at the FBI’s grand-sounding microscopic analysis unit in Washington, he said, where he was a world-leading expert in the even grander-sounding science of “hair microscopy”. Scholberg told the jury that he had analysed the rapist’s hair found at the crime scene and compared it microscopically with a sample hair taken from Odom’s head. The comparison had produced an exact match, which was significant because that was a “very rare phenomenon”. Having performed thousands of similar hair examinations over the previous 10 years, the FBI agent told the court, there had been only eight or 10 times when hairs from two different people were so similar that he could not tell them apart – suggesting the firm probability that the rapist’s hair and Odom’s hair had come from the same scalp. That is more or less the way the Dr Melanie Liebenberg told it to a Jury in Hove, East Sussex in another sex allegation case (see below).

 

 

Donald Gates, first case to be overturned after an FBI fitup on hair identification  Kirk Odom was wrongfully convicted of rape, a victim of false testimony by the FBI

 

 

JAILED FOR 22 YEARS ON BOGUS HAIR EVIDENCE

 

The testimony, proudly invoking the certainties of science, did its job: the verdict came in guilty. On the basis of that single hair Kirk Odom was to spend the next 22 years in prison and a further nine living the half-life of a paroled sex offender.

The trouble was, Scholberg’s testimony wasn’t scientific, and it wasn’t true. Fast forward to 2009, by which time Odom had spent 28 years in prison and on parole. In that year the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences released a landmark report into the practice of forensic analysis in the US. The report pointed out a basic problem with the idea that you can compare two hair samples and produce a positive match. No statistics exist, the council pointed out, that map the distribution of hair properties in the general population, and that renders it impossible to make any meaningful calculations about the probabilities of a particular hair type being found. As a result, “all analyst testimony … stating that a crime scene hair was ‘highly likely’ to have come, ‘very probably’ came, or did come from the defendant violates the basic scientific criterion that expressions of probability must be supported by data”.

To put that in plain English, Scholberg’s statement to the jury at the Odom trial – that the match he had found between the defendant’s and the rapist’s hair was a “very rare phenomenon” – was complete fantasy.

 

How is that different from the case below? Apart from the fact that Melanie Liebenberg misled the Jury as to anatomical evidence, rather than the matching of a hair - It isn't. Dr Liebenberg used out of date medical evidence to seal a wrongful conviction, the FBI used outdated anatomical evidence. Is it not time that the UK did the research to not only convict those guilty of offences, but also to protect those falsely accused of crimes. Ref: The Guardian, Ed Pilkington

 

 

 

The Physical Signs of Sexual Abuse - Royal College of Paediatrics 

 

SEVEN YEARS AND COUNTING - Oh dear me. Dr Liebenberg was an expert witness in the case below alleging rape. Sometimes experts think that are doing the right thing by not following the correct procedures and not telling it like it is with new guidance about to be published. The girl in this claim was examined in 2006 using old thinking to compile a report. The trial below was held in February of 2008. In March of 2008 the above guidance was issued. In this guidance, the correct procedure for examining claimants is spelled out. We wonder if dear old Melanie had seen this document in draft form before giving her evidence. If so, that would compound the misdirection that the jury were given and that would be fraud. If not, then it is a curious coincidence that Liebenberg failed to conduct her examination in a manner that would benefit the defence, but would most assuredly disadvantage the defendant. As reporters, we have seen the good doctor's report from 2006. In this report Liebenberg says that Claimant H was: "Tightly closed and could not be opened with labial traction." Here she was referring to the girl's hymen. We have also read the above Guidance, and in those pages it is clear that if a girl is interfered with more than once, her hymen will not be tightly closed. There is a reliable method of measuring virginity, using the distance from the hymen to the vaginal wall. The instrument used is called a Colposcope. In this case the examiner did not obtain the adolescent's medical history, so did not know that she had a congenital birth defect, which fortunately she could not have attributed to the defendant.

 

It is important when constructing a jigsaw puzzle, to have all the pieces. For example, the examiner did not know that there had been heated exchanges between the defendant and her mother and that he'd recently called off an engagement. The girl was also a gymnast and previously rode horses. None of the Class 3-4 signs were present, as one might have expected if as claimed, the girl had been regularly penetrated. The trial judge told the jury this might have been on 40 occasions - thus virtually instructing the jury to convict.

 

Dr Liebenberg failed to mention to the jury that none of the expected lacerations, transections and/or healed scars to the fossa or posterior fourchette - or angular clefts or tears, or labial adhesions of the hymen were present. She might have mentioned that the absence of any and all of these signs, given the claimed regularity of abuse, was not consistent with the allegations. Dr Liebenberg could have mentioned that had any of these signs been in evidence, that would have been either definitive proof of sexual abuse or at best highly suspicious circumstances. But, as we stress - none of these were present and the jury had a right to know that before sending a man to prison.

 

This evidence does not stand alone. There is a diary that casts doubt as to opportunity which the girl's mother hid in her loft so that the police would not find it. On the stand under duress the girl's mother revealed its existence, but then she knew that the defence would not have time to cross reference the dates in it with the girl's testimony. Judge Cedric Joseph then wrongly told the jury that this diary was the defendants - and Still the CCRC turn a blind eye.

 

 

COLPOSCOPY

 

Colposcopy (Ancient Greek: κόλπος kolpos “hollow, womb, vagina” + skopos "look at") is a medical diagnostic procedure to examine an illuminated, magnified view of the cervix and the tissues of the vagina and vulva. A specialized colposcope equipped with a camera is used in examining and collecting evidence for victims claiming to have been raped or sexually assaulted. The technique should be gainfully employed and developed to identify the growing numbers of false allegations, so saving convictions based on testimony, that under the present system, is all that is needed to send a man down. Dame Butler Schloss is an advocate of enhancing our knowledge in this area and said as much in her remarks on the above RCPCH guidance.

 

Many premalignant lesions and malignant lesions in these areas have discernible characteristics which can be detected through the examination. It is done using a colposcope, which provides an enlarged view of the areas, allowing the colposcopist to visually distinguish normal from abnormal appearing tissue and take directed biopsies for further pathological examination. 

 

The other use of colposcopy is to prevent cervical cancer by detecting precancerous lesions early and treating them. The procedure was developed in 1925 by the German physician Hans Hinselmann, with help from Helmut Wirths.

 

 

  Colposcopic examination technique

 

 

 

PROCEDURE

 

During the initial evaluation, a medical history is obtained, including gravidity (number of prior pregnancies), parity (number of prior deliveries), last menstrual period, contraception use, prior abnormal pap smear results, allergies, significant past medical history, other medications, prior cervical procedures, and smoking history. In some cases, a pregnancy test may be performed before the procedure. The procedure is fully described to the patient, questions are asked and answered, and the patient then signs a consent form.

A colposcope is used to identify visible clues suggestive of abnormal tissue. It functions as a lighted binocular microscope to magnify the view of the cervix, vagina, and vulvar surface. Low power (2× to 6×) may be used to obtain a general impression of the surface architecture. Medium (8× to 15×) and high (15× to 25×) powers are utilized to evaluate the vagina and cervix. The higher powers are often necessary to identify certain vascular patterns that may indicate the presence of more advanced pre-cancerous or cancerous lesions. Various light filters are available to highlight different aspects of the surface of the cervix. Acetic acid solution and iodine solution (Lugol's or Schiller's) are applied to the surface to improve visualization of abnormal areas.

Colposcopy is performed with the woman lying back, legs in stirrups, and buttocks at the lower edge of the table (a position known as the dorsal lithotomy position). A speculum is placed in the vagina after the vulva is examined for any suspicious lesions.

 

After a complete examination, the colposcopist determines the areas with the highest degree of visible abnormality and may obtain biopsies from these areas using a long biopsy instrument, such as a punch forceps, SpiraBrush CX or SoftBiopsy. Most doctors and patients consider anesthesia unnecessary, save where multiple biopsy samples are to be taken - to decrease patient discomfort.

 

The results in sexual cases may have the same effect as a lie detector test, save that the physical examination and photographic record are more conclusive. If a girl has been raped, especially a young girl, there will be signs that prove penetration (rape) has taken place. This will be especially apparent in cases of non-consensual sex where no foreplay will mean no lubrication and so increased trauma in the form of tearing (scars) and bruising.

 

In the case below, apart from the fact that the girl was "tightly closed", there was also no signs of tearing of the fourchette, or other trauma associated with digital penetration (without foreplay = dry). The girl claimed regular assaults of this type that would have produced scars and the like in 83% of cases, but there were no scars, a finding which is clearly inconsistent with her claims.

 

A partial notch was found in the hymen, but it is now known that such findings are normal. Tears and the like in the hymen are full width if caused by trauma, leaving scar tissue, rather than partial (a smooth small indentation) as in naturally occurring features. This was not explained to the jury, who were left believing that there was no explanation for the 'notch' other than penetrative sex.

 

 

Vagina wide open hairy orifice, clitoris and hymen

 

 

UNDERSTANDING THE SEXUAL ABUSE EXAM - The "why"'s of the pediatric sex abuse exam

It should assist physicians in evaluating what they see. It will also assist attorneys and members of the public who are required to evaluate reports.

Here is the proposed classification of anogenital findings in children as given by Adams (1994):

Normal (Class I)

* Periurethral bands
* Intravaginal ridges or columns
* Increased erythema in the sulcus
* Hymenal tags, mounds, or bumps
* Elongated hymenal orifice in an obese child
* Ample posterior hymenal rim (1-2 mm wide)
* Estrogen changes (thickened, redunant hymen)
* Diastasis ani / smooth area at 6 or 12 o'clock in perianal area
* Anal tag /thickened fold in midline 

Nonspecific findings (Class II): May be caused by sexual abuse or other medical conditions.

* Erythema of vestibule or perianal tissues
* Increased vascularity of vestibule or hymen
* Labial adhesions
* Rolled hymenal edges in the knee-chest position
* Narrow hymenal rim, but at least 1 mm wide
* Vaginal discharge
* Venous congestion of perianal tissued, delayed in exam
* Fecal soiling

Suspicious for abuse (Class 3)

* Elarged hymenal opening - greater than 2 standard deviations from the nonabused study (McCann)
* Posterior hymenal rim less than 1 mm in all views
* Condyloa acuminata in a child
* Acute abrasions or lacerations in the vestibule or on the labia (not involving the hymen), 

    or perianal lacerations

Suggestive of Abuse / Penetration (Class 4)

* Combination of two or more suspicious anal findings or two or more suspicious genital findings
* Scar or fresh laceration of the posterior fourchette with scaring of the hymen
* Scar in peri-anal area, must take history into consideration* Clear Evidence of Penetrating Injury
* Areas with an absence of hymenal tissue, below the 3 o'clock to 9 o'clock line with patient supine, 

   which is confirmed in the knee-chest position
* Hymenal transections or lacerations
* perianal laceration extending beyond (deep to) the external anal sphincter
* Laceration of posterior fourchette, extending to involve hymen
* Scar of posterior fourchette associated with a loss of hymenal tissue between 5 and 7 o'clock.

The authors warn that this classification "does not represent a consensus of medical experts regarding the classification of findings with respect to abuse."


Here is a standard table for evaluating the overall likelihood of sexual abuse.

Notice that this table does not take into account the setting in which accusations are made, i.e., was there a previous custody battle?

In evaluating a report of sexual abuse, look for the following:

How was the exam performed? If the child is not relaxed, or labial traction and separation is not performed, the hymen may seem to be absent. Warm water may need to be applied to see the tissues clearly if they are stuck together. Blood and mucus may need to be wiped away. Was gonorrhea or chlamydia diagnosed? Only confirmed cultures are acceptable in court. Britton and ___ agree. Gram stain is nonspecific in the female at any age. Nonspecific bacterial infection of the vulva can look horrible, but it is quite common in young girls and does not indicate gonorrhea unless there are cultures to prove its cause. Was colposcopy performed? Are there photos? colposcopic examination and photographic documentation of the findings seems to be the standard of practice in the developed world. Adams and colleagues (1994) went through their files of 262 cases since July 1986 with convictions, and found only 18 without photos and 8 with only nonmagnified photos. Nowadays video is available as described by Finkel (1998).

It's normal to be normal. Fondling is not going to leave scars. Penetration of the hymen of a four-year-old girl by an adult man's penis will surely rupture the hymen. The literature is divided on the question of whether the latter can heal without a scar. If this is true, then the most horrible sexual abuse can give a normal exam, and physical findings can never exonerate a defendant. As a pathologist, I don't believe this. It doesn't make sense, and I have been unable to find a follow-up study showing that a Class V laceration has healed without a scar visible on colposcopy. This tells me something.

Some sex-abuse examiners never sign out an exam, "Physical findings do not match the story", although this is routine in forensic pathology of child abuse victims and.

 

 


Hymel and Jenny list the differential diagnosis of child sexual abuse.

Dermatology


Licneh sclerosus
Diapet dermatitis
Pinworms
Poor hygiene
Bubble bath
Nonabusive bruising
Seborrheic, atopic, or contact dermatitis
Lichen simplex chronicus
Lichen planus
Psoriasis
Bullous pemphigoid
Perianal venous congestion

Congenital

Labial fusion
Hemangioma
Midline defects
Prominent medial raphe
Linea vestibularis
Perianal hyperpigmentation
Midline anal skin tags
Diastasis ani

Injuries

Straddle injury
SPlitting injury
Female circumcision
Hair tourniquet
Seat belt or motor venicle accident injry to genitalia

Other

Behcet's disease

They also list the following as unlikely to be due to abuse:

Vestibular findings
Erythema
Lympnoid follicles on the fossa navicularis
Midline avascular areas of the fossa navicularis
Urethral findings
Periurethral bands
Urethral dilation with labial traction 

Hymenal findings

Small hymenal mounds, projections or septal remnants with otherwise normal hymenal anatomy
Concavities of the hymen that are anterior, smooth, curved, and/or shallow
Imperforate hymen Labial findings
Small labial adhesions
More extensive labial adhesions in girls still in diapers
Midline avascular areas of the posterior fourchette
Intravaginal structures behind a normal hymen
Ridges
Rugae



CANDIA - THE MAJOR ARTICLES

Hymel KP and Jenny C., Child Sexual Abuse, Pediatrics in Review 17(7): 236-249, 1996. "A non-leading interviewe of the child often is the most critical component of the evaluation for suspected child sexual abuse." Also talks about standard-of-care. The words "consistent with" means "pretty good evidence, but not proof, of..."

 

Berent W., "Case Study: Allegations of Abuse Created in a Single Interview", J. Am. Acad. Child. Adol. Psych. 36(7): 966-70, 1998. A baby-sitter videotaped her grilling of a child. Ultimately the child reported that the father killed a pink cow and a pink horse with a gun. "An elaborate, detailed allegation was created through the use of repetitive, suggestive questioning." Dr. Berent is at 1601 Twenty-Third Avenue South, Nashville TN 37212.

 

Levitt, C., Further Technical Considerations Regarding Conducting and Documenting the Child Sexual Abuse Examination", Child. Abuse Neg. 22(6): 567-586, 1998. Carolyn Levitt MD is director of the Midwest Children's Resource Center, Children's Health Care, 360 Sherman Street Suite 200 St Paul MN 55102.

 

Bays J, Chadwick D, The medical diagnosis of the sexually abused child. Child Abuse & Neglect 17: 91-110, 1993.

 

Britton H & Hansen K, "Sexual Abuse", Clin Ob Gyn 40(1): 26-239, 1997. First author is at 100 N Medical Drive Suite 3400, Salt Lake City, Utah, 84133. Lists:

 

Definitive for Sexual Abuse

* Presence of sperm (I would have added "Presence of prostate-specific antigen and/or 

   prostatic acid phosphatase" - Ed.) 
* Gonorrhea or syphilis not transmitted congenitally
* HIV not transmitted neonatal or intravenously
* Pregnancy, not consensual with a peer
* Acute unexplained aotenital injury or isolated hymenal trauma
* Definite unexplained hymenal transections, healed or acute, "absent hymen"

I would have added bite marks, petechiae, avulsions, hematomas, or contusions in the vulva or the anus, without some good explanation. - Ed.

Other experts list "absent hymen" as merely "consistent with". 

Highly Suggestive

* Chlamydia, conduyloma acuminatum, trichomonas not neonatally acquired
* Anogenital herpes herpes, not neonatally transmitted or accompanying stomatitis
* Posterior/lateral angular clefts or tears of hymen
* Nonmidline anal scars or tags
* Dilation of anal opening to >15 mm within 30 sec with no stool present 

 

Suspicious for Sexual Abuse

 

* Nonspecific vaginitis (bacterial vaginosis)
* Posterior narrowing (<1 mm) or asymmetry of hymen
* Healed unexplained injry to fossa or posterior fourchette
* Decreased thickened anal folds
* Thick irregular labial adhesions not related to hygiene or diapering

Finkel, MA, "Technical Conduct of the Child Sexual Abuse Medical Examination", Child Abuse & Neglect 22(6): 555-566, 1998. Historical aspects, including a description of how the early examiner's opinions "were frequently quoted and accepted as scientific fact." Much on the value of colposcopy. Deplores the fad for using the transverse diameter of the hymenal orifice as the gold standard for abuse. Finkel lists as unanswered questions, "What is the minimal acceptable use of technology to conduct and document an examination of an alleged child sexual abuse victim?" "Are observers more conservative in their interpretation of physical findings if there is an opportunity for a second opinion review of their observations and the potential for challenge?" and "What is the clinical relevance of the transverse hymenal orifice diameter?" It ends with a note on barriers to research, including the fact that there is not a full consensus on what is abnormal.

AACAP Official Action, "Practice Parameters for the Forensic Evaluation of Children and Adolescents Who May Have Been Physically or Sexually Abused", J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psych., 36(3): 423-438, March 1997. At last, the psychiatrists set standards for history-taking and evaluating the accuracy of statements from children. Agrees that most allegations are true, but lists causes of error.

Adams, JA et al., "Examination Findings in Legally Confirmed Child Sexual Abuse: It's Normal to be Normal", Pediatrics 94(3): 310-317, 1994. Contact Joyce A Adams, Dept of Pediatrics, Valley Medical Center 445 S Cedar Ave, Fresno CA 93702. Surprisingly, the group discovered that no correlation between genital findings and the child's report of having been penetrated. What disturbs me most about this article is the assumption that if somebody was convicted, abuse actually occurred. The authors state, "We must rely upon the child's description of the molestation as the best method of characterizing the abuse." So much for the semi-science of pathology. And ironically, there is no attempt to match the child's description with the findings. For some reason they didn't examine all their cases either. 

 

Ed Friedlander MD

 

 

VIRGINITY TESTING

 

A virginity test is the practice and process of determining whether a female person is a virgin, i.e., whether she has never engaged in sexual intercourse. The test involves an inspection of a female's hymen, on the assumption that her hymen can only be torn as a result of sexual intercourse.

TWO FINGER TEST

The process of virginity testing varies by region. In areas where medical doctors are readily available, such as Turkey before the country banned the practice, the tests will often be given in a doctor's office. However, in countries where doctors are not available, testers will often be older women, or whoever can be trusted to search for a hymen. This is common among African tribes that perform the test.

Another form of virginity tests involves testing for laxity of vaginal muscles with fingers (the "two-finger test"). A doctor performs the test by inserting a finger into the female's vagina to check the level of vaginal laxity, which is used to determine if she is "habituated to sexual intercourse". However, the usefulness of these criteria has been questioned by medical authorities and opponents of virginity testing because vaginal laxity and the absence of a hymen can both be caused by other factors, and the "two-finger test" is based on subjective observation. In virginity tests, the presence of a hymen is often used to determine if a woman is a virgin.

MARRIAGE

Some cultures require proof of a bride's virginity prior to her marriage. This has traditionally been tested by the presence of an intact hymen, which was verified by either a physical examination (usually by a physician, who would provide a certificate of virginity) or by a "proof of blood", which refers to vaginal bleeding that results from the tearing of the hymen. The physical examination would normally be undertaken before the marriage ceremony, while the "proof by blood" involves an inspection for signs of bleeding as part of the consummation of marriage, after the ceremony.

RELIABILITY

Virginity testing is not a reliable indicator of a female having actually engaged in sexual intercourse because the tearing of the hymen may have been the result of an involuntary sex act, such as rape, or other event. Many researchers note that the presence of an intact hymen is not a reliable indicator of whether a female has been vaginally penetrated.

The hymen is a corona of thick skin situated just outside the vaginal canal, surrounding the entrance but in no way covering the vagina, and is better described as a "vaginal corona" rather than "membrane" or "film". It is highly flexible and can be stretched or torn during every engagement in vaginal intercourse. It is a misconception that the hymen always tears during first intercourse. If the woman is not aroused, the hymen will not be as elastic as if it is moist due to arousal, and the risk increases for the corona to be damaged, which often is the case during the first intercourse.

IMMIGRATION

The United Kingdom had a policy to use virginity testing on women who said they were immigrating to marry their fiancees who were already living in the country. The British government believed that if the women were virgins, they were more likely to be telling the truth about their reason for immigrating to the country. The policy ended in 1979.

 

 

 

 

VIRGINITY TESTING - The Zulu tribes in South Africa invite girls to prove that they are virgins, reviving an African tradition seen by many as the answer to the scourge of AIDS. Bare-breasted teenagers wearing nothing but strings of beads and loincloths regularly submit to the ordeal of having a stranger check if their hymens are intact - then leaping for joy when the test confirms that they are still intact. Advocates say the revival of the rite is the most effective way to stop the spread of teenage pregnancies and the deadly HIV virus, believed to affect one in 10 South Africans. It's no different to young girls of 13 in the UK asking their doctor for the contraceptive pill, except that we give it to them. Who is doing things correctly here!  Girls who pass get white stars pasted on their foreheads and a certificate confirming their virginity. Physical virginity tests were also reported in India from August 2009.

 

 

LINKS

 

http://www.pathguy.com/abuseexm.htm

http://womenshealth.about.com/cs/cevicalconditions/a/colposcopy.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virginity_test

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virginity_fraud

http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/colposcopy/Pages/Introduction.aspx
http://www.pathguy.com/abuseexm.htm

Colposcopy

Virginity_test

Virginity_fraud

Medical conditions colposcopy

Virginity tests zulu south africa

 

 

Judge Cedric Joseph

 

 

THE ULTIMATE RAPE - ANATOMY OF A STITCH UP - FLOW CHART - REAL LIFE INJUSTICE

 

 

ALLEGATION SEXUAL ASSAULT 2006

follows acrimonious family break up

|

TEACHER

loses her note of original version of events

FRIENDS

report their version of gossip

SOCIAL WORKERS

failure to investigate claims

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CHILD PROTECTION UNIT (Breaches SOCAP procedures)

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2nd OFFICER

INVESTIGATING OFFICER

failure to secure crime scene evidence 

3rd OFFICER

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PATIENTS DOCTOR

MEDICAL EXAMINATION

uses out of date forensic guidance in a controversial area of science - defence barrister fails to challenge

PSYCHOLOGIST

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DEFENDANT CHARGED

Eastbourne Magistrates Court

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CPS WITNESSES

Barrister fails to apply to question claimant

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FRIENDS

DEFENCE WITNESSES

Barrister fails to interview any of 17 witnesses for defence

FAMILY

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MEDICAL EVIDENCE

Barrister fails to challenge medical evidence even after Lewes Crown Court Judge tells him to get on to it.

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SX POLICE

Refuse to return defence computer evidence or to confirm nothing untoward on computers. Court eventually force Police to return.

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TRIAL COURT FEB 2008

Hove Crown Court - conservative venue with high conviction rate

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SOLICITOR

Cramp & Co

BARRISTER

Sussex Chambers

JURY SWORN IN

BARRISTER

SOLICITOR

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ARGUS

BECKETT GROUP

PRESS

Publish mid-trail in violation of Court Order to preserve fair hearing - contempt of Court. Trial Judge, Cedric Joseph, fails to remedy.

SX EXPRESS

KENT & SX COURIER

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JUDGES SUMMING UP

Misdirects Jury on vital diary evidence and asks them to decide medical issues for which no juror is qualified

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VERDICT FEB 6 2008

A guilty verdict is returned

JUSTICE

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INJUSTICE

APPEAL PROCESS BEGUN MAY 2008

APPEAL SOLICITOR

Stuart Grace Associates

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1st APPEAL BARRISTER

Michael Harrison

APPLICATION TO COURT OF APPEAL requesting transcript of medical testimony

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Her Majestys's Court Service (HMCS) - refused transcript = abuse of process Appeal barrister unable to perfect grounds

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SINGLE JUDGE

Sir Christopher Holland - refuses leave and initials box - compounding abuse of process

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APPLICATION TO ECHR May 2009

28536/09

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APPLICATION TO CCRC December 2009

In England once leave to appeal is refused, there is no other appeal process save via the Criminal Cases Review Commission

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LEGAL AID APP FUNDING 2010

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SOLICITOR (CCRC)

Wells Burcombe & Co

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BARRISTER (CCRC)

Dominic Chandler

CCRC 2010

Provisionally refuse application.

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CCRC 2010

Freedom of Information request reveals new medical guidance exists which the CCRC had neglected to mention

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LEGAL AID APP FUNDING 2011

For report as to natural marks and virginity reference RCPCH guidance March 2008 - one month after trial.

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SOLICITOR

Ross Simon & Co

Chizzy Nsofor

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BARRISTER

Lucy Corrin

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CCRC 2011

Obtain limited forensic Report as to naturally occurring marks. 

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CCRC 2012

Admit medical evidence to Jury misleading - but refuse to investigate virginity issue, diary misdirection or provide transcript they have obtained as to revelation of diary mid-trial.

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LEGAL AID APP FUNDING 2012

To seek a Judicial Review of CCRC's refusal to investigate inconsistencies in evidence as above.

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SOLICITORS JUDICIAL REVIEW

David Wells & Siobhan Tipper

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BARRISTER

Stephen Field

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HIGH COURT (ADMIN) 2013

Refuse leave for a Judicial Review

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LEGAL AID REFUSE FUNDING

To Appeal to the Appeal or Supreme Court

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CCRC ECHR 2014

Fresh Applications having exhausted possible domestic remedies

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THREATS OF RECALL 2015

License conditions were used to prevent fresh application to the CCRC until after the licence term had been served.

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CCRC 2016

Fresh application to the CCRC imminent. Virginity and Fraud will be the next subjects for investigation.

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In a case where sexual assault is claimed, it is vital for investigators to act quickly to prevent potential witnesses from rehearsing and developing a version of a false claim. The investigators in this case allowed the claimant two weeks to rehearse a story, all the while she was obtaining feedback from social services and friends as to what to say such that it might be acceptable (believed). Coaching or rehearsing a story is of course illegal. Clearly, in this case coaching is a major feature. SOCAP procedures are designed to prevent coaching by obtaining a statement the moment an allegation is made. By this means false allegations may be revealed by preventing changes to a story that repair obvious lies that a defence will be able to disprove. We are following this Sussex case and will report news as it happens.

 

 

 

ABOUT SUSSEX POLICE

 

Many policemen are Masons, there is no denying this. This can lead to corruption at high levels, where fellow Masons, members of the public, might obtain favours, as in charges being dropped, or charges brought against someone, as examples.  The law is quite often used incorrectly (illegally) to further the objectives of private causes in organized fashion. But who is there to investigate? Since many, if not most high ranking officers are Masons, and their siblings, even if not masons, in whichever force, even an outside force is unlikely to identify an officer who will make any effort to investigate a fellow officer.  It's a club, for a favoured few in positions of trust - and there is no real complaint system that bears scrutiny.

 

On this site you will find information of corruption in all walks of life, and those targeted who may have brought  the actions of council officers to the public's attention, such as Wealden Action Group members, on the instigation of known Masons, councillors, or planning officers, many of which are themselves Masons.

 

 

Our advice to the public, is to log every complaint to the Police by recorded delivery.  If possible tape record, or even better video record the event.  Believe us, there is no substitute for hard footage to combat the lies of a police officer failing to do his duty and lbe complacent they will be!

 

 

Every regional Police Force has its own website which contains information and advice about police activity in the area it serves. You can select your local force, or the force for another region below:  However, you will not find any information as to how to report planning crime.  If you do report a planning crime, the force you have contacted will write back explaining it is a civil matter, despite the criminal sanctions in the Town & Country Planning Act as amended by the Planning & Compensation Act.  If you really push for a crime to be logged, they will tell you they do not have the resources and to take out a civil action.  Clearly, this is a crime in itself as in R v Dytham and R v Bowden - failing to perform one's duty to uphold the law.  Please also see the Police Act and Code of Conduct elsewhere on this site.  Just click the links.

 

It appears the UK Police Service works alongside a number of Government organisations, masquerading as independents, to stifle planning crime and suppress public outcry.   The best thing you can do if you recognise any of the symptoms, is to lobby your Member of Parliament for a change in the law.  The Ombudsman, District Auditor and Office for the Supervision of Solicitors are all their to preserve the status quo, regardless of the ongoing injustice:-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HOME OFFICE LINKS 

POLICE ASSOCIATIONS AND FEDERATION LINKS

POLICE AUTHORITIES

NATIONAL SERVICES LINKS

 

LINKS & REFERENCE

 

The Guardian US news 2015 June 23 FBI evidence single hair Kirk Odom

https://www.documentcloud.org/documents/2081513-microscopy-of-hair.html

https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/228091.pdf

http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2015/jun/23/fbi-evidence-single-hair-kirk-odom

http://twitter.com/edpilkington

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/Romford-and-Eastbourne-hospitals-dragged-in-to-NHS-care-scandal.html
http://www.lushingtonclinic.co.uk/consultants/dr-melanie-liebenberg/

www.drfosterhealth.co.uk/consultant-guide/Dr-Melanie-Anne-Liebenberg

 

 

 

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